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diy solar on-grid and off grid project - solar energy traffic lights

by:Litel Technology     2019-08-10
diy solar on-grid and off grid project  -  solar energy traffic lights
Hello, friends, I really found solar energy. My dream is to use my house entirely on renewable energy.
I want to design a system that powers the grid in the morning, or manage my load consumption directly from the solar energy, which can be done by-
In the power grid system, I want to use the energy stored in the battery at night, which can be achieved by shutting down. -Grid system.
In this guiding article, I will take you all through the process of building a DIY. -
Power grid system and shutdown-Grid system.
In this guide, we will move step by step. In the first section, we will introduce-
The grid system also covers all related topics.
In the second part, we will discuss-
Grid system step by step.
Solar energy is an amazing energy option, because the cost of solar panels has been reduced by an invincible amount due to a high production day.
My budget is really low, so I managed the project efficiently with high quality products.
Let's start. . . . . .
In Section 1, we will introduce the grid system and explain it in detail with a step-by-step approach.
Index Step 1: What is open-Grid system?
Step 2: How does it work?
Step 3: Material Requirement Step 4: Installation Planning Step 5: Connection Step 6: First Operation. Learning and acquiring solar energy knowledge will be very interesting.
We know that if we store energy in batteries, it will cause 30% energy loss while storing energy.
Therefore, there is another option to improve the efficiency of our system, that is, to improve the efficiency of our system. -Grid system. In On-
The grid solar panels are installed on the roof. The electricity generated by the solar panels is direct current. The electricity we use at home is alternating current. So to convert direct current into alternating current, we need an inverter to convert it.
But because the system must be connected to the grid, we need grid-connected inverters to convert DC to AC at the same frequency as we get from energy suppliers.
The grid-connected inverters are connected to our power supply through a solar meter, which only calculates the generated solar cells. The connection is made by a net meter, which calculates the unit consumed by the power company and has the data of the generated solar cells.
The net meter gives the net unit of consumption. NET UNIT = (
Energy Company Consumption Unit----SOLAR UNIT)On-
It's easier to understand the grid system from an example: Suppose we have placed a 3,000-watt solar grid connection system, which will generate 2,700 watts around 11 a. m.
Our electricity consumption is 1500 watts. (
It is consumed by fan and LED TV. . etc. )
As a result, 1,500 watts will be supplied directly from the solar system, and the remaining power will be fed back to the grid. (2700-1500=1200 W)
Suppose we have a party in our place in the morning and we consume 4,000 watts, then our solar system will provide 2,700 watts and the remaining 1,300 watts will be provided by the power company. In ON-
The grid system assumes that we go out during the day, our system generates 12 units, and at night we go home and turn on the air conditioner and lights, so that we can use the same number of units at night, and we can consume all 12 units we produce in the morning, so in this system, the grid serves as our battery.
Solar panels Solar panels are made of photovoltaic cells. (PV)
Batteries that convert sunlight into direct current(DC)
Electricity is on all day.
Inverter device converts direct current generated by solar panels into alternating current. (AC)electricity.
Battery board AC is fed from the inverter to your battery board, and solar energy is used to power your lights and appliances.
Distribution panels are often referred to as "circuit breaker boxes".
"Utility meters measure your energy consumption.
When your system produces more energy than you need now, it actually backs off.
The extra solar energy cancels out the energy you use at night.
Public grid Your business is still connected to the grid.
You need utility power at night, but don't worry.
The cost is offset by the extra solar energy you put into the grid during the day.
Power Guide Monitoring System Power Guide Monitoring System keeps track of your energy production to ensure that your solar system runs smoothly.
So a grid connection system consists of these elements and the designated workgroups.
In my case, I would like to install a complete 3,000-watt solar system, but due to the shortage of funds, I am currently installing a 3-kilowatt grid-connected inverter and 1,500-watt solar panels. In the future, I will double the solar panels accordingly. We require1)
250 W x 6 solar panels = 1500 W 2)
Grid-connected inverters(
Sukam grid-connected inverter 3 kW3)
4mm steel wire coil 90m(Both AC and DC)4)Junction Box5)
Two circuit breakers 6)
A 50-foot iron L-angle(IN MY CASE)
50mm x 50mm x 5mm 7)
Catheter - These things are needed to complete the installation.
In AC conductors, the internal gauge of conductors is less than about 15. -
20. Like DC lines, the specifications of the wires are about 30 higher.
By using these different wires, efficiency will be improved.
In manufacturing or installing inverters and panels, we need drilling machines and tools.
We even need concrete mixtures to fix the roof structure.
Therefore, in this step, we will understand the load calculation of our house, which will give us a concept of the system power we need.
On-site inspection, fabrication of structure, placement of panel, installation of frequency converter. etc1)
Calculating our consumption assumes that we watch two hours of television in a day.
Our geyser works for 2 hours, the fan works for 10 hours and the lamp works for 8 hours.
Therefore, the description refers to the power of the device, that is, TV = 250 wgeyser = 1500 wfan = 80 wlight = 18 wso. We have to know that these devices will consume so much power in one hour, so in order to get the consumption of our day, we will multiply the number of hours by the power of the specific device.
This will be TV = 250 x 2 = 500 wgeyser = 1500 x 2 = 3000 wfan = 80 x 10 = 800 wlight = 18 x 8 = 144 W daily total consumption = 4444 W.
This is our daily consumption, equal to 4. 4 kw means 4.
4. Electric power devices.
So how many solar panels do I need to install?
The answer is: 1 kilowatt panels can produce four in a day. When we separate daily consumption from four, we can get the power of the panels we want to install. 4. 4/4 = 1.
The 1So 1kW system is level 8.
Now, according to the annual and tropical conditions, this calculation method will change with the increase of sunshine hours in some countries and the decrease of sunshine hours in some countries.
The above calculations are for India.
We have six hours of sunshine in summer.
In this step, we calculate the roof area that can be used to install solar panels. It takes 80 square feet for a kilowatt solar installation. -
It covers an area of 100 square feet.
The difference of 20 square feet is because people need to clean the panels.
In my case, I had about 50 square feet of space to install 1,500 watts, so I decided to upgrade the structure by 8 feet and extend the structure beyond the roof boundary, which was legal because the boundary of the solar panels was under the fence of my roof.
But I recommend that you install panels close to the roof surface, because after installation you can easily clean the panels. In my case, this is a challenge, but I can use the space below the panels for plants.
Structural design is the main process, because you have to make it withstand more than 20 years, in my case, I use iron angle. (
50mm x 50mm x 5mm)
Since it will provide more strength for my structure, the main points we must remember are the orientation and inclination of solar panels.
We all know that the sun rises in the East and then goes west, so our solar panel faces south with GR8.
In any country, we can place the panel in a south-facing position, and the tilt angle varies according to the latitude and longitude of the position.
We can find our answer from the link provided: India's tilt angle varies from 14 degrees to 28 degrees, so we chose 18 degrees to fix the structure, because in summer, solar panels will generate the same amount of electricity as at 28 degrees, but in winter, sunshine time is really less, we use WA. T temperature will also decrease, so if we reduce the amount of electricity generated, we can.
There is little difference in electricity in winter, about 0.
Five units of loss in a 3 kW system.
I will weld 20 cm x 20 cm x 10 cm iron plate and fix it on the roof, then we will fix the structure by making concrete blocks around it.
In this step, we will install solar panels and connect them to the end.
First, we have to connect the solar panels to the structure, so to install it, we use the J-clip and fix the panels with the help shown in the figure.
Once we have finished installing the solar panels, we will connect them in series. Let's discuss the connection.
Series connection Series connection assumes six panels, so we connect the + ve terminal of the first panel to it. -
Similar to the + ve terminal of the second panel, the + ve terminal of the second panel is connected to it. -
Similarly, the ve terminal of the third panel is like this. In series, if we have a 24 V panel, and if we connect six panels in series, we will get an output voltage equal to 144 V, and the ampere will remain unchanged. so in On-
The grid system will be connected to the panel in series because we receive higher voltage through the grid connected inverters.
Parallel connection assumes two 12 VOLT SOLAR panels. We connect the + ve terminal of the first panel to the + ve terminal of the second panel, similar to that of the second panel. -
VE terminal is the same, we get only 12 volts of output, but the ampere will increase. If the veneer produces 4 amperes, in the Paler connection, we get 12 volts 8 AMPERES of output.
When all the panels are connected in series, we will receive an output voltage of about 144 volts, so please connect at night as if you were going to do it in the morning, because the potential of the solar panels is very high in the morning, so you may be shocked.
The output first enters the junction box, and then enters the grid-connected inverter.
So you all know that I only connect 1 500 watts to my 3 kW inverter. There are two parts of the inverter connected to two panel arrays. We only have one panel array, so we only connect one array to the inverter.
The working voltage of the inverters is 120V, so our inverters will run successfully on six 250W panels.
In the picture above, we can see that we have connected the DC wire to the photovoltaic part and the output wire. Now we will simply connect the output wire to our power supply. (
Note: There are three output lines 1)Phase Wire 2)Neutral wire 3)Ground wire. )
So we have to connect them to our power box accordingly.
That's it. Now we can put forward inspection requirements. It takes 2 weeks to convert the former instruments into net instruments. The inspection will be completed in 1 week.
This system is really simple. I really like building this project.
Real happiness by generating green energy.
Therefore, when the installation and inspection process of the meter is completed, Biwatt-hour Company has provided us with a certificate indicating that the project is approved and installed in accordance with the standards of government agencies.
Therefore, first test the operation of DC power supply, as if we put the polarity of the panel wrong, so that our inverter can display the red light in the fault area.
We should buy grid-connected inverters with island characteristics. In this characteristic, if the grid fails, the inverters will stop working and do not supply power to the grid. This is mandatory, because most inverters do not have this characteristic.
So in a month, I saved 188 units, which was great for me, because my bills in previous months consumed 350 units, but now only 120 units.
I like green energy.
In Section 2, we will introduce the offline system and explain it in detail by step.
Index Step 1: What Is Closed-Grid system?
Step 2: How does it work?
Step 3: Material Requirement Step 4: Installation Planning Step 5: Connecting conclusions and learning about solar energy will be very interesting. Off-
For villages without electricity or with serious blackouts, the grid system is feasible.
In this system, the electricity generated by solar panels is stored in batteries, which store charges and provide backup when needed.
We can understand this through an example.
Suppose I bought a cottage in the village where no company supplied electricity and the people living there illuminated the house with kerosene, so I decided to put the solar panels on my roof and store the electricity in my batteries, which I could use to power my appliances and lights at night.
This system is an independent system.
Because I live in a city where blackouts are rare, I'm installing a hybrid solar interface system.
In the morning, the solar energy is used to charge the battery, and in the evening, the grid power supply to the inverters is automatically cut off and the battery power supply is provided to the inverters.
This system works well for me because my house uses green energy in the morning. -
Power grid system and night load will be transferred to shutdown-Grid system. isn't amazing?
Solar panels Solar panels are made of photovoltaic cells. (PV)
Batteries that convert sunlight into direct current(DC)
Electricity is on all day. Off-
The grid interface has a variety of functions, playing the role of a charging controller. The generated solar energy passes through the grid, enters the battery after the battery is full of electricity, and cuts off the DC charging power supply flowing to the battery.
This system is connected to(
Batteries, household inverters, solar panels, main power supply)
It has a deep switch, which can even control the discharge of the battery according to our power failure. If we have a high power failure, we can input code accordingly to keep the battery charging state.
If we have fewer blackouts than we use batteries, we only need to charge the batteries 20% in an emergency.
Once the battery energy is utilized, the lamp connected to the inverter will automatically switch to the main power supply.
Batteries are used to store electrical energy in direct current form and provide standby voltage = 12 V A/hr = 150 A/hr when needed. We use solar cells with C10 panels, which charge faster than ordinary C20 cells.
We can also use lithium-ion batteries, like the power wall I'm working on that will be shared soon.
Inverter device converts direct current generated by solar panels into alternating current. (AC)electricity.
Distribution pan AC is transmitted from the inverter to your distribution pan, and solar energy is used to power your lights and appliances.
Distribution panels are often referred to as "circuit breaker boxes". " .
I'm converting my inverter system into a solar system, so I already have a 900 volt-ampere inverter.
Requirements 1)
150 W solar panels, 22)
150 Ah Solar Cell 3)Solarcon (Interface)4)
Inverter 900 VA 5)
Wire/circuit breaker always uses 300 W batteries, because if we calculate the power of the battery, which equals 12 x 150 = 1800 Wso, we need to generate 1800 W of power from the solar panels in a day to charge our batteries to the fullest sunshine hours in our city = 6 hours of required power = 1800/6 = 300 Wnow. Do you know or have I used it here? Cheng.
It's just that we need 6 feet x 6 feet of space to fix the size of the solar panels in that place.
In this system, I keep the panel facing south, tilting at an angle of 25 degrees, because in winter, our panel should generate the maximum energy to recharge batteries in a day, and I concentrate on not using the power of the grid, because I can use credit units in summer.
I made the structure with iron angles, so maybe you can see how to calculate the inclination in the previous steps.
Iron L angle size is 25 mm x 25 mm x 2. 5 mm.
I use this size because the panels I install are close to the surface, so they don't need too much strength.
From the picture you can see the structure of the panel.
Once the structure is completed, I fix the structure on the roof and make a concrete base around the fixed area, which will provide more protection and stability for the structure.
Further plans are similar to those we have already made. -Grid system.
Once we have completed the fixed panel, it is time to connect the whole system and make it work.
In this system, we know that we use 12 volt batteries, so we need to parallel the panels so that we can receive 12 volts and an additional ampere.
Series connection Series connection assumes six panels, so we connect the + ve terminal of the first panel to it. -
Similar to the + ve terminal of the second panel, the + ve terminal of the second panel is connected to it. -
Similarly, the ve terminal of the third panel is like this. In series, if we have a 24 V panel, and if we connect six panels in series, we will get an output voltage equal to 144 V, and the ampere will remain unchanged. so in On-
The grid system will be connected to the panel in series because we receive higher voltage through the grid connected inverters.
Parallel connection assumes two 12 VOLT SOLAR panels. We connect the + ve terminal of the first panel to the + ve terminal of the second panel, similar to that of the second panel. -
The same is true for ve terminals. We get only 12 volts of output, but the ampere will increase. If the veneer generates 4 amperes, we get 12 volts 8 AMPERES of output in Paler connection. After connecting the two panels parallel, we will pass through the wire of the conductor tube and close it to the interface system.
Here, we will connect them according to the polarity mentioned in the interface. Now we will connect the red wire from the interface and the + ve terminal from the battery, as well as the + ve terminal from the interface. -
The ve terminal of the battery, now the converter is coming. The converter has three color coded wires and the same codes on the interface, so we will match and fix it accordingly.
The last step is to connect the interface to the power supply, because we know that there are three wires connected in the single phase, respectively,, 1)Phase , 2)Neutral 3)Earthing.
So we need to find the grounding wire and connect it to it, not the neutral line, and finally the phase line. We've finished the connection, and now it's time to open it. .
I hope you enjoy this project, and I'm happy to share it with you all. I ask you to move in the direction of sustainable energy in order to develop human beings.
My vision is to use green energy to develop human beings, so I am also working for my country and people, who live in darkness and provide them with energy-saving solutions based entirely on renewable energy.
May you also help these people and connect them to a better world, because it is great to do our own work, but it will give you great pleasure to work for others.
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