The following is the new book "Can cities be sustainable?
Brian Holland & Juan Wei's speech at World Watch (
Island Press, 2016)
: Portland has developed and implemented strategies to reduce greenhouse gas emissions for more than 20 years.
In early 1990, it became the first city in the United States to adopt a comprehensive carbon dioxide reduction strategy.
Murtenoma County 2001 (
The most populous of 36 counties in Oregon)
And Portland (
Murtenoma County and the location of the largest city in Oregon)
They passed their local joint action plan on global warming.
On 2009, mutenoma County and Portland passed the updated climate action plan (CAP)
Categories of action and more expansion
Strict emission reduction targets.
The plan identified 93 action steps in eight categories to achieve its emission reduction targets, from the collection of residential food residues by roadside to the expansion of urban tram and light rail systems.
Thanks to the strong leadership of the government, science
Portland has long been making informed policies.
In order to avoid the catastrophic consequences of climate change, the city has formulated the latest emission reduction targets based on the latest science of the Inter-Governmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC).
Portland passed a 80% reduction target by 2050, with a medium-term target of 40% by 2030.
According to the recommendation of the IPCC, 1990 will be set as the baseline year for the reduction target.
In order to achieve its ambitious emission reduction targets and expand the choice of transit and cycling, sporland has developed a wide range of policies and plans.
Some measures have been introduced long before concerns about climate change, but they provide important tools in this fight.
As early as the 1970 s, Oregon was statewide.
To prevent the spread of cities by establishing urban growth boundaries and using policies.
Under the guidance of this policy, encourage more urban development
While protecting farmland and wilderness, dense urban communities.
The successful policy laid the foundation for a range of effective greenhouse gas reduction initiatives in Portland.
Portland's focus is on development, designed to provide accessible transportation options for people within the city, so the expansion of tram and light rail systems has become a priority over the past few decades.
Since 1990, Portland has added four major light rail lines (
The fifth one under construction)
And the Portland tram.
The construction of the country's first multi-purpose project is about to be completed
Closed modal Bridge
The private car will transport bicycles, pedestrians and public vehicles on the willamit River.
In addition, Portland now has 513 kilometers of bicycle lanes, including green passages near 95 kilometers;
291 of bicycle lanes, bicycle lanes and buffer bicycle lanes;
A 127-kilometer bike lane.
Portland was the highest rated by the American cycling federation for being a bicycle.
In addition, the bicycle magazine designated Portland as the number-one bike-
A friendly city in America.
Thanks to these efforts, Portland drivers have fewer vehicle miles than most other cities of similar size.
Over the past 20 years, transit passengers have more than doubled (
100 million rides in 2013)
Today, Portland goes to work by bike every day at least 12,000 more people than in 1990.
6% of Portlanders commute by bike, nine times the national average.
While Portland's population has increased by 31%, gasoline sales have fallen by 7% compared to 1990.
In addition to providing more transportation options, Portland has implemented a range of clean energy and energy efficiency initiatives.
The high attention to green buildings has led to more than 180 certified green buildings.
2012 of the data shows that Portland has more Platinum-
There are more certified buildings than any other city in the United States.
The city is also expanding the use of solar energy in facilities and communities;
The number of solar systems has increased from 1 in 2002 to 2,775 today.
Portland's energy efficiency program, clean energy engineering (CEW)
Starting in 2009, there were 500 pilot families.
Designed to reduce energy consumption by 10%-30%, the CEW provides long-termterm, low-
Interest financing for homeowners
Home energy upgrade with on-
Bill utility repayment loan.
Thanks to innovation and success, CEW attracted $20 million from the United States. S.
The Department of Energy expanded the pilot to the state.
The project has achieved many benefits.
As of April 2014, more than 3,700 households in Oregon have been upgraded to improve energy efficiency.
These upgrades help avoid greenhouse gas emissions of more than 5,000 tons per year, equivalent to powering nearly 500 households a year.
At the same time, the project created $70 million in economic activity and created about 428 jobs.
Rain is the runoff generated by rainfall and another challenge facing modern cities.
Like many old cities, Portland has a combined system of rain and waste water, which causes contamination of local rivers and streams when high rains cause the system to overflow.
In order to protect the rivers and natural systems, Portland voted to implement a series of policies to promote green infrastructure, including requiring all new buildings to manage 100% of the rain
Construction is carried out through structures such as green streets and green roofs.
Thanks to these new policies and the city's constant promotion of green roofs, some of Portland's buildings and structures now have a living, a vegetation roof system that reduces runoff, it also provides aesthetic, air quality habitat and energy benefits.
Portland now has over 390 green roofs covering nearly 8 hectares.
The city has also invested heavily in green infrastructure, such as rain gardens and bio-valleys (
Landscape elements designed to remove silt and pollution from surface runoff water)
More than 1,200 such facilities are available in public rights-of-way.
Portland uses green infrastructure to manage millions of liters of rain every year.
Recycling, energy conservation and job creation are also national leaders in recycling efforts.
The total recovery rate of residential and commercial waste is 70%.
Due to the addition of food waste composting services once a week and the transition to eachother-
During the garbage collection week in 2011, residential waste sent to landfill sites decreased by more than 35%, and the collection of compost materials more than doubled.
Portland has been leading by example,
Set positive emission reduction targets for their operations.
By improving efficiency, including traffic lights, pumps and sewage pumps, and building lighting systems, the city has achieved energy savings of more than $6.
£ 5 million per year, which saves Portland about 30% per year on electricity bills.
Contrary to the assumption that pursuing emission reduction targets could slow down the local economy, Portland's experience suggests that climate action reduces the cost of doing business and creates more --
A fair, healthy, livable community.
Green jobs are on the rise in Portland.
More than 12,000 jobs in the city can be attributed to the clean technology sector, including green buildings, energy efficiency and clean energy.
Portland is also a national leader in the manufacture and service of innovative bicycle products.
Portland's plan to cut emissions has been a success.
Local greenhouse gas emissions were 11% per cent in 2013, below 1990 per cent.
32% per capita decrease)
Now, Portland households are using 11% less energy per capita than in 1990.
With all these efforts and achievements, Portland became one of 16 local jurisdictions in the United States and was recognized by the White House Climate Action Champion in 2014.
In the same year, Portland won the C40 City Climate Leadership Award for its healthy connected city strategy, one of the 10 cities in the world.
The award honors cities around the world as a leader in sustainable urban development and climate change.
Currently, multenoma County and Portland city are reviewing and revising their 2009 climate action plan.
Building on past successful experiences and lessons learned, action proposals and social equity were updated in 2015 in the development process.
For energy projects, the city plans to advance the network
Zero energy building and require energy disclosure for large commercial buildings.
Focus on solar and solar
Carbon fuel will continue to exist and efforts to encourage the use of electric vehicles will be strengthened.
Portland has adopted a sustainable set of urban principles to guide the day-to-day operations of urban institutions, officials and staff.
In addition to promoting greener choices in urban procurement, these principles seek to balance environmental quality, economic prosperity and social equity and encourage thinking beyond the first cost
Duration, cumulative impact of policy and financial decisions.
They encourage innovation and
Engage residents and businesses in more promotions
Including measures conducive to diversifying the urban labor force and ensuring fair service to communities of color and other underserved communities.
At present, the city is seeking to reduce the global life cycle emissions caused by consumption.
Life cycle emissions are emissions from the production and use of furniture to computers to electrical appliances.
To this end, Portland has taken innovative steps to measure life-cycle emissions from household, public institution and corporate consumption.
According to the list, Portland's global greenhouse gas emissions are twice that of the United States.
Boundary emissions are traditionally measured.
Portland plans to step up its efforts in this area and find effective ways to communicate these findings to the local community.
In addition, businesses and residents need to be helped to better understand the contribution of their consumption choices to global emissions.
Portland recognizes that in order to successfully reduce urban climate impacts, cities across the country and around the world need to strengthen cooperation.
In June 2014, Portland was one of the 17 cities around the world that launched the carbon and City Alliance, which is committed to achieving positive long-term goals
Carbon reduction targets.
The alliance's goal is to develop strategies that enable major cities to work together to achieve emissions reductions more effectively and efficiently.
Can a city be sustainable? (
The status quo of the world)
Adapted from the world observation Institute, the report is based on 2015 of Mike Steinhoff and others. al (
Washington, D. C. : WWF
United States and ICLEI United States, 2013).
Reprinted with permission from Washington, DC Island Press.