This is the first project I completed earlier this year.
I have a shed. I use it as a workshop or I can ride a bicycle somewhere for training. (
On the Turbine Trainer
As a common storage area.
Although it's very close to the house, there's no power supply, and every time I enter the shed on winter nights, it's enough to touch. I decided to try to install a low-voltage LED lighting system, which can be powered by a 12V battery charged by a solar panel.
I search on Google. . . .
I searched a lot on Google, and then went further.
I didn't know how to put one of them together, so it took me a few days to feel that I had learned enough knowledge to know what I was doing.
For those unfamiliar with solar charging system components, it's like this: you can charge a solar panel directly on the battery. . . .
However, when the battery is fully charged, all this becomes very bad. If the current is injected into the battery again, it will actually damage the battery.
To prevent this, you need to use a solar charging controller, a device located between the solar panels and the batteries.
The device can regulate the current flowing to the battery to prevent overcharging, and at the same time prevent the load from discharging the battery too far, thus causing damage.
There are two main types of controllers.
PWM and MPPT controllers. (
Thank you for correcting Marcaris. First, pulse width modulation（
Pulse width modulation)
More suitable for low power applications（< 170W)
But it can't handle any overvoltage generated by solar cells.
By contrast, MPPT（
Maximum Power Point Tracking)
Charging controller has great advantages in optimizing the output of solar cells. It can deal with solar cells that generate overvoltage, which can be used to improve the charging efficiency by 20%. -25% (
Under appropriate conditions).
Pulse width modulation is much longer than MPPT technology, so it is usually cheaper and has more sizes and models to choose from.
With that in mind, I chose the pulse width modulation mode and started buying the other components I needed.
MPPT Controller: Esky Intellent LCD 30A-£20.
00 solar panels: 100W polycrystalline photovoltaic panels-£70.
00 battery: 12V 35Ah recreational battery-£50.
00LED Bar: 5M 12V 5050 LED Bar-
12 switches: 2 groups of outdoor switches-£7. 00Fuse Box: 4-
Road car fuse box-£6.
00 Battery Conductor: Ring Terminal, In-line Fuse and Anderson Connector-£5.
00 wiring board:4-
Line terminal row-£5.
50 Panel Connector: Universal MC4 Connector-£5.
50 panel installation: 4x plastic installation-£13.
99 Installation: 10mm plywood（400mm x 300mm)-£10.
00 Back Plate: 2mm Aluminum Plate（200mm x 130mm)-£3.
Line 50: 15A Red/Black-£3.
00 bolts: M8 galvanized-£4.
50 Others: Fork terminals and shovel fuses-
2. Total cost of construction: 217 pounds.
If you choose a lower power panel and a smaller battery capacity, you can significantly reduce this cost.
I'm sure most of the components will be cheaper if you buy more on eBay.
For me, the interesting part of this project is always construction.
I decided to install most of the main components on the distribution board, which could be built, and then simply installed in the shed and connected.
I chose to use a 10mm plywood with controllers, terminals, fuses and fuse boxes.
The controller itself carries a warning that the rear is actually a heat source. -
Flume should be considered in installation.
I first thought about "stepping" it off the plywood, so I gave it air. -
The gap between the back of the controller and the wood, but ultimately decided to install it on the aluminum plate to help heat.
I cut the paper 15mm wider than the controller and rounded the corners. (
Just for beauty)
Mark and drill four holes, then screw them into the back of the controller.
I drilled several holes in the circuit board to let me penetrate the cable from behind instead of messing up the front.
The wiring board is placed near its controller terminal, and the "output" side of the distribution board is located on the right hand side.
The output cable of the controller enters the back of the circuit board through a hole and then exhausts again above the fuse box.
Where do I connect the switch? （
One reason is that 2-
Gang switches, which I will introduce in textbooks later)
Then connect the cables connected to the LED lamp ribbon and fix them in place.
The shed is about 2.
Five meters long, so a five-meter long LED lamp can be cut in half and installed on either side of the central beam of the roof. (
Connect the distal end with a small piece of cable between the two.
Fortunately for solar panels, the shed faces north/south, so half of the roof faces south. -
The veneer is very suitable for maximum exposure to sunlight.
The panel is bolted to the panel bracket. (using M8 bolts)
Then tie it to the roof of the shed. （
Similarly, use M8 bolts)
With butterfly nut, easy to disassemble.
The mounting rack allows air to flow under the panel and guide it from the top to reduce the risk of tearing in the wind.
I connected a cable with MC4 connectors at one end to the panel and sent the other end back to the cabin through a hole I drilled.
Then I pass it through one of the holes behind the panel, press it on the fork terminals, and then connect them to the wiring board.
All other cables are prepared in a similar way.
The Anderson plug on the battery conductor is a fairly "industrial" kit!
If you have a competent tool, these pins can be curled, but I used a small blowtorch to weld the cables to the pins.
In such a system, fuses are really important.
The 12V system is generally not considered dangerous, so it is very suitable for this use.
However, a short circuit can actually cause a fire.
As I have already said, the controller can handle the short circuit at the output, but we should also ensure that the battery is protected.
The Clue I Choose（see photo)
To connect the battery to the charging controller, there is an in-line spade fuse. (
It's 10 A at present. .
The output terminal also has a fuse to protect the lamp from short circuit damage.
At present, I use 5A fuse on that side.
Finally, I made a box out of the rest of the plywood and put the battery on the floor. I wanted to protect it from wear, tear, knock and bang.
When I plugged the MC4 connector into the panel, the charging controller started to work and began to give the reading of the charging rate, panel output, etc.
I spent some time fiddling with the controller before I got to know the settings. . . .
Unfortunately, the manual provided with Esky Controller lacks English translation!
I mentioned earlier that I chose to use 2. -gang switch. . . .
The reason is that I want to install a second LED that can be controlled independently. . . . . a red set!
I am an amateur astronomer, and building everything in the dark is a real challenge. . . .
However, using a flashlight or turning on normal light can destroy eye sensitivity. . .
Unless it's a red light.
Installation of the second light belt means that I can use the shed lamp to illuminate the area when setting it up, even as a place to sit and observe remotely. (
Use laptops, etc. )
If it's really cold outside!
When I first studied this question, one question I wanted to answer was, "How long will my battery last when I turn on the light? "
It's actually much harder than I thought at first.
In theory, my 35Ah battery should be able to provide a 35h 1A before it runs out.
White LED Bar Painting 1.
Five years, therefore, means that it takes about 23 hours to work when the battery is full.
The problem is that these are theoretical values. . . .
They do not consider variables such as temperature and battery health that have a significant impact on things.
Another consideration is-
Acid batteries can't reach the theoretical maximum anywhere. . . .
In fact, you can expect at most half of the potential. Saying that. . . .
If it can power these strips for 10 hours, I'm glad!
Charging performance also depends largely on external variables, especially the demand for direct sunlight.
With this in mind, your batteries will charge much better in spring/summer than in other months of the year.
Charging time was difficult to calculate, and I didn't know how the rig worked until I installed a monitor.
I'm planning more courses, including home automation and monitoring systems that I'm currently implementing.
One module is the solar charging monitor, which will feedback information about current battery charging, panel output and so on.
From this system.
Once I have finished it, I will link it back to this instructive continuity.
I am also studying the use of batteries to power the power inverters to operate 240V on certain devices in a short time.
This is the first time I have taught you.
I hope you've found it useful and will ask if you think I've missed anything, made any mistakes or had any general questions. Please don't hesitate to ask in the comments section below.