From a piecemeal point of view, the pieces of a jigsaw puzzle don't mean anything.
Only after careful assembly can this photograph be completed, and these small pieces make sense.
In many ways, science is no different from jigsaw puzzles.
Experiments produce detailed results, but they are often so specific that they have little or no general application or significance.
The results of any research can only be truly meaningful in the overall context.
In other words, the key to understanding is to step back and accept the whole situation.
But how can you get the whole picture without a separate component assembly?
Called Western Scientific Method-
Experiments, observations and deductions are used to explain natural phenomena reliably. -
Belong to oneself.
Science is good at simplifying a complex problem into its components.
Reductionism, as we all know, makes a thorny problem easier to study.
Simply put, reductionists are white people. -
Coating folk bending equipment-
Sparse benches in aseptic laboratories.
They are not without libels. -
Usually, people like ecologists and behaviorists prefer to treat their subjects as a complete and integrated system.
For many of them, reductionism is a dirty word.
To some extent, the differences between reductionists and theologians are not different from those between practitioners of orthodox and alternative medicine.
Is one better than the other?
Which method produces the elusive Holy Grail, "Truth"?
The answer is not clear, which suggests that the problem may be partly responsible.
First, what do we mean by "better" and, more importantly, what does "truth" mean?
Not too philosophical, better and truth are relative terms.
In particular, they relate to the level or scale of understanding we seek.
Take ordinary or garden leaves for example.
Leaves can be described in terms of color, shape, texture or odor, which are only considered lateral growth of plant stems.
It can also consider potential applications, such as cooking or herbal therapy.
In another strategy, leaves may be considered to be the main organ of photosynthesis. -
If you like, use it as a solar panel for plants or trees.
At the same time, biochemists may want to understand leaves at the chemical or molecular level, and so on.
The point is that there is no better way to do it than another, and no way to do it once. -and-for-
All the true narratives of poverty.
Each level of understanding may be appropriate.
More importantly, we can fully appreciate the leaves only when we stand behind and take a big picture.
However, to do this, many mainstream scientists believe that they need to take many small, accurate pictures. -
It is roughly the same way that the number and details of a single pixel determine the clarity and clarity of a TV screen.
These scientists are becoming more and more professional in their quest for more knowledge, and there is no immediate sign that this trend will weaken.
But another action is under way. Nobel prize-
Prize-winning physicist Murray Gail-
Mann calls it "the growing demand for specialization needs to be complemented by integration".
He complained that a wide range of integrated thinking was "derogated to cocktail parties".
In academic life, bureaucracy and elsewhere, the task of integration has not been fully respected. "Gell-
Mann's synthetic method is a "third way" after reductionism and holism. -
Some integration of the two.
Specifically, he and his colleagues advocate collaboration between scientists in different disciplines and seek alternatives. -
Especially non--linear -
This trend is also evident, as scientists have recently reported extensively on so-called "big science".
Well-known experts write not only their own disciplines, but also other disciplines.
However, this may not be an exception for a long time.
Recently, famous zoologist Professor Richard Sorswood wrote The Story of Life, San Diego State University historian David Christian drew the Map of Time, Princeton University Saint Michael Cook drew a brief history of mankind, and Oxford University chemistry professor Peter Atkins wrote Galileo's fingers, only four.
Is the academia in a mess?
Or did it finally regain consciousness?
The latter can be explained only by the story of life.
Professor Sorswood is not an amateur madman: he used to be the president of Imperial College of Technology and the Department of Zoology at Oxford University, and an associate professor at Oxford University. -
Principal, with 13 honorary degrees.
Scientists like him usually write their own expertise strictly.
However, zoologist Sorswood's research on geology, botany and other aspects is not difficult.
His efforts paid off.
Readers were entertained by a feast of detail. -
Sometimes it's a little too much. -
Supported by the street reputation of science, this reputation can only be possessed by such a respected researcher as him.
The story of life outlines, in an academic but sufficiently understandable way, many minute details of how life first came into being and then flowered.
Most importantly, we have an authoritative general impression of life on Earth. -
This is a big story full of bloody glory.
Science writers usually present a wide range of manifestations of the world.
Their works are generally easy to understand, but sometimes lack credibility.
After all, no scientific writer can be an expert on anything.
But some scholars seem to be able to.
Although David Christian is a historian, he seems to be good at everything.
This is because he has made the new and ambitious subject of "Great History" his specialty.
"No geographer will try to teach only from street maps," he wrote in Time Map.
"However, most historians never ask what the whole past looks like when they teach about the past of a particular country, or even farming civilization.
As a professional generalist, Christian found order in "endless chaos and complex waltz".
He is one of the small but burgeoning groups of historians looking for a large unified past on all scales.
Some scholars, including Melbourne, Canberra and Perth in Australia, Amsterdam in the Netherlands and Santa Cruz in the United States, have taught history to the greatest extent possible.
Teach us our origins, not in fragments, but in the context of life and ultimate human production, to give people a sense of purpose. -
Christine says it's about adapting to the environment.
"Under the awesome diversity and complexity of modern knowledge, there is a potential for unity and coherence to ensure that different time scales do speak to each other. . .
They constitute what Australians may call modern "dreams". -
A coherent narrative of how we were created and how we integrated into the schema of things.
"Really comprehensive scope, time span Figure 13.
Seven billion years-
From the beginning of time to now and beyond（
He even looks forward to the future. .
A World Fused with Nature and Human History-
Something learned souls have tried-
Christians associate physical phenomena with social phenomena.
"Cities are like stars, twisted into social spaces," he wrote. -
The time in the surrounding area pulls in the goods, people and skills of nearby villages and towns.
"Until the 20th century, cities were social equivalents of galactic black holes, sucking in and destroying the remaining population in their hinterland," he continued.
Christians even put forward a law of social gravity: "roughly speaking. " (
Amazingly close to Newton's law)
The attraction between communities is directly proportional to the size of communities, and inversely proportional to the distance between communities. "His wide-
Observations of the human and animal worlds are instructive.
He explained that animal species lacked such a history, and he wrote that the controversy was: "Once they evolved, they tended to remain in their original niche until they disappeared from the fossil record.
"However, we are different.
"Human behavioral diversity and diversity are not characterized by a single species, but by the entire family or order of animals. -
They did so in an amazing short period of time.
"What really distinguishes us from other animals is our ability to think abstractly, and to learn collectively through the cumulative nature of our culture, Christian reasons.
Humans as individuals are not smarter than chimpanzees. . .
But as a species, we are more creative because our knowledge is shared across generations.
Michael Cook's Brief History of Humanity has adopted a similar strategy.
In his preface, he insists that his book "only wants to convey to an alert reader an overview of human history and views on some of its interesting ways".
He did not put forward a unified theory of history.
But what he relies on is-
Help answer a series of key questions from a big historical perspective.
These include why civilizations rise and fall at distinctly different rates, how the world's great religions rise, and why many god worship has been replaced by monotheism.
What are the core principles of chaos theory? -
The idea of a butterfly flapping its wings somewhere in the world may eventually affect weather elsewhere. -
Cook points out that seemingly insignificant events or cultural attitudes may gradually affect humans.
Weather, in particular, determines a range of developments, including the emergence of agriculture when the world warmed and stabilized about 10,000 years ago.
The importance of life stories to seemingly trivial matters raises similar points of view.
"Structures with fairly small functions are often proven to be key to adapting to major evolutionary steps," Thorswood writes.
For example, fins evolved into feet that propelled water plants, and then into limbs that could walk on land.
Meanwhile, the gills of insect larvae evolve into cushions, skim over the water, and then fly on wings.
The tempting trend of drawing big pictures even affected Bill Bryson, who recently interrupted his trip. -
Writing can tell a short history of almost everything. (
Voltaire's comment that "the secret of boredom is to say everything" may have prompted Bryson to add "almost". )
Last month, Bryson won the Avuns Award for coveting science books with his unique style, enabling readers to travel from the origin of the universe to the origin of life to the extinction of the current flora and fauna.
Bryson is not a scholar, scientist or science-writer (
He asked experts from different disciplines to examine his copy carefully. .
So what can we learn from a layman we don't yet know?
Facts have proved that quite a few.
First, his layman position proved to be his strength rather than his weakness.
Bryson is not afraid to show naivety or ignorance on most topics.
This enabled him to ask unimaginable questions and write in a simplified way, which few scientific writers dare and few scientists can think about.
As a journalist, Bryson's brave man brought colour, vitality and endless personal anecdotes to the theme he covered.
His description of the earth can finally be traced back to four years.
Fifty-five billion years, for example, go far beyond the search for the age of ancient rocks. (
Eventually, Claire Paterson, an American, measured lead isotopes in meteorites to determine that number.
It also includes a fearless and frank account of the geological protagonists involved.
Bryson's attempt to understand how scientists perceive what they think they know provides light for the scientific process as well as for the themes he addresses.
He points out that science may not always be as objective as people say.
Knowledge gaps are often larger and larger than they seem at first glance. -
Many pieces of jigsaw puzzle are missing in life.
Pioneers who often help fill gaps are not always recognized for their efforts. -
Some scientific revolutionaries have been neglected or even despised.
Bryson, perhaps with a little foresight, left a feeling that even if all the puzzle pieces were found and successfully placed in the right place, the overall situation might still be quite puzzling. Science-
Peter Spenks is the author of The Wizard of Oz. (Allen & Unwin).
E-mail: pspinks@theage. fairfax. com.
The Great Scroll of Prophecies: Stories of Life, by Richard Sorswood, Oxford University Press, 2003.
From the birth of the solar system to the end of our addiction to environmental degradation, zoologist Southwood led readers on an occasional but always tempting trip to the planet.
Although there is no vocabulary, 256-
This book describes how life develops, why it develops in different directions, and in what direction it may develop.
David Christian, Time Map, University of California Press, 2004.
In 1989, Christian began teaching history in large and enthusiastic classes at Macquarie University in Sydney.
His success encouraged him to write this 492-
Paging machine, it forged the bold and ingenious connection between physical and social sciences.
The only criticism is that some material is duplicated and some basic definitions or explanations are omitted.
Brief History of Human Beings, Michael Cook, Granta Press, 2003.
Cook gave two reasons not to write such an ambitious book: there is so much history to tell, but so much is unknown.
Nevertheless, he succeeded in telling us in 359 pages how rich human history has been over the past 10,000 years.
A Brief History of Almost everything, by Bill Bryson, Two-Day Press, 2003.
Is there anything Bryson can't write?
The interesting and fantastic narrative of almost everything is 423-
Almost every science is enviable. -
The writer wanted to say almost everything about the weird scientific world, but he didn't.
This man should be stopped before he takes away the rest of our work.
Galileo's Fingers, by Peter Atkins, Oxford University Press, 2003.
Paging machine refers to the middle finger of Galileo's right hand, which is kept in the Florence Museum, quite strange.
The work of the great Italian mathematicians, astronomers and physicists laid the foundation for many modern sciences, including 10 core concepts of evolution, DNA, energy, entropy, atom, symmetry, quantum, cosmology and space. -
Time and arithmetic.
Structures of Great History: From the Big Bang to Today, by Fred Spier, University of Amsterdam Press, 1996.
The first book on big history cost 120 pounds. -
The step of putting humans in the context of our evolving universe, solar system and planets.
He also provided a spiritual defense for those who thought he was standing too far and might lose some key details.
There are only six numbers: Martin Reese's Deep Power to Shape the Universe, Foundation Book, 2000.
British astronomer Royal is one of the most respected scientists in the world. He came up with an idea. -
Stimulate our special position in the universe.
Two of the six figures in 179-
The title of page tome is related to basic forces, two fixed universe sizes and textures, and two fixed attributes of the space we live in.