Thousands of organizations around the world are tackling the challenges of climate change dramatically.
Here are 10 examples.
Coral reefs look beautiful, but when storms or floods hit, they also play a key role in coastal barriers, absorbing about 97% of the wave energy.
However, due to rising temperatures, coral coverage in the Caribbean is estimated to have decreased by about 80% over the past few decades, said Joseph Pollock, director of the Caribbean Coral Strategy at the Conservation Society.
He adds that it is estimated that in 2016, an ocean heat wave killed about a third of the shallow coral on Australia's Great Barrier Reef.
In collaboration with Secore International, a conservation organization, and a leader in coral restoration, IUCN is adopting an innovative approach to this problem: helping coral breed.
That's how coral mating works, Doctor.
"Many coral species release bundles of eggs and sperm one night a year to lay eggs," Pollock said.
"It's like the craziest single bar ever," he said.
Researchers know when these nights are, so they go out to collect eggs and sperm and then mix them together to cross. -
Fertilize them and grow for days or weeks until they become coral larvae and then put them back into the sea.
The survival rate was about 10%.
But it's much better than surviving without the help of scientists, Pollock said.
Compared with other repair technologies,-
Fertilization creates greater genetic diversity and more flexibility.
This work is now concentrated in the Caribbean, but Dr.
Pollock said he hoped it would be used all over the world.
"The goal of this work is to develop low-cost tools and technologies without requiring a large number of super professionals and infrastructure," he said.
Last year, Hurricane Maria swept through Puerto Rico, destroying almost all of Puerto Rico's power grids, leaving most residents without electricity for months.
Jonathan Marvel, one of the founders of Miracle Architects, was born and raised in Puerto Rico.
Not only does he want to help restore electricity, he wants to restore it in a more environmentally sustainable way than before the storm.
As a result, he worked with colleagues and friends to create Puerto Rico's flexible energy, developing and installing solar microgrids in the most efficient way for as many people as possible.
The organization received an early donation of batteries from Tesla and focused its work on them. -density, low-
Build houses and install grids on the roofs of community centers that normally serve 3,000 to 4,000 people.
Their work complements other efforts, not only to rebuild the island, but also to make its infrastructure more resilient and environmentally friendly.
One advantage of solar microgrid is that solar energy can be stored. -
If the main power supply is interrupted, allow them to work-
Solar panels alone are not viable.
So far, 28 micro-grids have been installed, serving nearly 100,000 people.
More than 30 more are nearing completion, Marvel said.
The cost of donations from companies and individuals is about $25,000 to $30,000 per solar centre.
Almost all of Puerto Rico's electricity is supplied by fossil fuels, but he says Puerto Rico is "an ideal place to use solar energy and renewable energy because it has more solar days than many parts of the world. "
Marvel's offices are in Manhattan and San Juan.
"We want to use solar energy instead of fossil fuels to keep candles burning.
"The role of soil in climate change is often overlooked, but changing its management may have a significant impact on global warming.
"Unfortunately, most soil productivity has declined, which has an impact on the environment," said Michael Donne, general manager of agriculture and food systems at the Conservation Society.
This is because it has been eroded by overcultivation, lack of adequate land cover and failure to diversify crops.
"This living ecosystem is dead and we are trying to revitalize it," he said. Doane said.
A pilot project is currently being carried out on more than 100 farms in about six states in the United States, focusing on reducing or eliminating farm tillage.
This work was accomplished with the support of the Soil Health Partnership, which works with environmental groups, farmers, academics and industry to change soil health practices.
"Farming is actually harmful to the soil," he said.
One of the main problems is that tillage releases carbon stored in the soil, which is exposed to the air and turns into carbon dioxide, leading to global warming.
Farming also makes the Earth more vulnerable to erosion and less susceptible to heavy rains.
One solution is to use plants. -
Rotation crops or the use of ground mulches, such as grass, depend on the materials needed to repair the soil. -
The main cash crops are covered with soil before and after planting.
He says people have found that different plant mulches can make the soil healthier and help control weeds. Doane said.
He added: "We want to avoid soil bareness and plant cover as much as possible. "
"On the contrary, our vision is an ongoing life cover.
He said it was "nature's solution to climate change". -
Where plants store carbon and release oxygen in the soil-
Maybe it's "very expensive"-
Effective ways to mitigate climate change.
"This does not apply to every farm, because every farm is different, but" We know that this applies to many farmers in many cases. -
We have good data. Doane said.
This process can increase farm productivity by creating better soil to maintain moisture and recycle nutrients, which means farmers can spend less on fertilizers.
"If we want to address climate change," he said, "we have to find economic solutions for people who don't know they're dealing with climate change. "
As temperatures around the world rise, it becomes more and more difficult to keep cool.
In addition, air-
Conditional use of HFCs contributes greatly to global warming.
One solution adopted by many cities around the world is "cool roofs", which require only a white reflective paint on dark roofs or a light film that reduces heat absorption.
This not only solves the "urban heat island" effect-
Because of human activities, urban areas tend to be much warmer than surrounding rural areas. -
But it also helps to reduce grid pressure and air pollution.
A Yale study cited a finding that if every roof in the United States was painted white, the urban heat island effect would be reduced by one. -third.
For example, New York City has a "cooling roof" program.
Since 2009, 5,000 volunteers have mapped more than 5 million square feet of roofs in the city, according to the Mayor's Office of Sustainability.
In India, only 10% of households have air. -
Air conditioning units, two cities-
Hyderabad and Ahmedabad-ran cool-
Roof Demonstration Project.
In Ahmedabad, volunteers and others painted 3,000 roofs in slums with white lime paint, says NRC Indian project director Anjalijawal.
Environmental organizations have completed these projects in collaboration with local partners.
DuPont has a research center in Hyderabad, which has a synthetic material Tyvek, which is commonly used in buildings and can cover dark roofs.
The company donated these materials to 25 roofs in the city.
Paint and coverings are considered equally effective. Jaiswal said.
She adds that a cool roof can reduce indoor temperatures by 3 to 9 degrees Fahrenheit, at only 7 cents or $4 per square foot.
As incomes and temperatures rise, so does the demand for air. -
"Conditional effects," she said.
An important aspect of addressing climate change will be to develop more environmentally friendly units and reduce their demand.
Two Indian cities are now developing a cool city. -
The roof policy stipulates that all municipal buildings must use roofs and extend them to the whole city in cooperation with business Leaders'corporate responsibility projects.
The cost is relatively low, madam.
Cool roofs are "saving lives, lowering temperatures and tackling climate change," Jaiswar said.
"Collecting plastic as a way of making money to recycle is nothing new.
But David Katz, founder and CEO of Plastics Bank, created a virtuous cycle of buying and reselling plastics.
Last year, the company won a United Nations Climate Solution Award for "Power for Change", which aims to prevent plastic from entering the ocean by allowing collectors to collect plastic around canals, waterways and other areas leading to the ocean before it reaches the ocean.
Through cooperation between plastic bank and big companies such as Germany-
Based on Hangao, plastics are reused.
This reduces greenhouse gas emissions, which are used to make new plastics.
According to a study by the non-profit Earth Day Network, about 8 million metric tons of plastic pollution are discarded into the ocean every year, equivalent to a garbage truck filled with plastic being discarded every minute.
The Vancouver, British Columbia-based Plastics Bank started working in Haiti three years ago.
There are now about 2,000 collectors who can receive cash, buy goods or services there. -
For example, cooking oil, LED lights or supplementary wages-as-you-go cellphones —
One of the country's 40 recycling bins.
They can also transfer funds to online savings accounts through plastic banking applications developed in collaboration with IBM.
In Haiti, more than half of the people live on less than $2 a day, a complete one. -
A cashier can receive several dollars a day, sir. Katz said.
The company also trains and supports local recyclers.
Plastic banks have expanded to Brazil and Indonesia.
This month, it launched its first website in the Philippines, and within the first week, Mr.
Katz said about 120,000 bottles were collected.
Constance Okolai has never heard of climate change, but she knows that her village in Uganda was destroyed by floods in 2007, which affected most of the country.
She knows that the increasingly unpredictable weather has made it increasingly difficult to grow typical crops such as corn, sorghum and millet, and has increased the number of poor but self-made people. -
Enough spiral development into poverty.
"We think God is punishing us," she said. Okollet said.
She suggested to her neighbours that they form a group to help each other and that they were elected to lead what she later called the Osukuru United Women's Network.
At first, they helped each other in small ways, such as pooling deposits.
Then in 2009.
Okolai heard on the radio that Oxfam, a global relief organization, was holding a meeting to focus on food security in the region. She decided to leave.
At one meeting, she said, "They've been talking about climate change, and I asked,'What are you talking about? '
What do you mean? ’”She learned.
She and other network members（
Including some men)
Since then, awareness education on climate change has begun. -
Its influence and how to adapt to it-
Through church workshops and places where people gather.
They have also undertaken many larger projects.
The network received a $5,000 grant from the Global Green Grants Fund, a non-profit organization that provides small grants to local groups dealing with environmental issues.
The money is spent on six teams of cattle, which is much faster than traditional manual farming.
An acre of land can be cultivated in two days, and a hoe takes four weeks. Ms. Okollet said.
This makes it easier to sow in good weather.
Two years ago, 60 network members also flew to Nairobi, Kenya, to learn how to make and sell charcoal blocks.
Deforestation means that wood is scarce and coal is greener anyway.
She says they mix ash, dried leaves and water, and the dried water is even better than wood.
"We also sell coal cakes to make money. -
Even a dollar helps, "she said.
"You can pay tuition or start a small business without having to borrow money from a bank.
"Peatlands may not be the first consideration when people are concerned about climate change, but abandoned and drained peatlands in parts of Russia not only cause extensive land degradation, but also produce a large amount of carbon dioxide through peat oxidation.
Carbon dioxide causes global warming.
For decades, millions of acres of land have been drained for agriculture, forestry and peat mining, a fuel for heating and electricity.
But Jozef Bednar, project manager for Wetlands International, said that when peat mining was no longer profitable, many areas were abandoned.
"Peatland ecosystems play a vital role in global climate," Dr.
Bednar pointed out that they store several times as much carbon dioxide as other ecosystems and are the major greenhouse gases.
Therefore, he added, "Peat swamps in the world represent an important carbon sink. " -
A place where carbon dioxide is stored underground cannot escape into the atmosphere, exacerbating global warming. ”Dr.
Bedner put forward an astonishing figure: peatlands account for only 3% of the world's total land area, but carbon dioxide emissions are twice the world's forests, with forest cover of more than 30%.
People drained peat land is prone to fire, accompanied by smoke spread far away, causing serious health problems.
After a large peat fire in Moscow in 2010, the International Wetland Organization and its partners under the International Climate Initiative of the German Government began to restore peatlands on a large scale.
The aim is to restore the peatland to its original flooded state.
With the help of experts, this is by correctly blocking drainage ditches and ditches to make peatland water. -
Storage capacity is Re-Yes, doctor. Bednar said.
He added that the project won the United Nations Climate Solution Award for Change Motivation last year, and so far Russia has restored about 100,000 acres of drained peat land, a process that can be replicated in other countries facing similar problems.
Climate and climate change are complex. Although schools are a good place to learn about climate change, not all teachers have the knowledge and resources to teach this topic.
That's why the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration has a partnership with federal agencies and the education sector. -
Focusing on NGOs, teachers and scientists, they have written the Basic Principles of Climate Literacy, a teacher's curriculum guide.
Frank Nepold, Senior Climate Education Program Manager at the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration and lead author of the Guidelines, said that the Guidelines had been launched since 2009, but were updated at the end of the year to apply to all ages and all forms of education.
"In the 1990s, less than 1% of national science education standards were related to climate change.
It's about 30 percent now, "he added.
At the same time, the partnership established a website, cleanet.
Organizations providing climate and energy education resources-
And the guidance to teachers. Mr.
Nipold estimates that more than 50% of kindergartens and 12th-grade children across the country are learning all or part of the climate literacy framework. "We are moving towards the goal of 75 percent," he said.
He added that other countries are also using the guidelines to develop their own curricula and standards, and this month, the National Association of Science Teachers released a position paper on climate science teaching, using climate literacy as one of its sources.
"Students are aware of climate change, want to know more, and want to be involved in tackling climate change," he said. Niepold said.
"They know that they need to understand the fundamentals.
"When an obstetrician, Laura Stachel, ate two cups-
Ten years ago, she spent a week in a remote hospital in Nigeria. She was interested in her mother's health, not solar energy.
But what she saw there changed her mind and her life.
She knew that maternal mortality was high: worldwide.
About 300,000 women and 2 million newborns die each year from complications of pregnancy and childbirth, Stachel said.
But she was unaware of the extent of so-called energy poverty.
The hospital she visited in northern Nigeria had no electricity for 12 hours a day.
During the day, cesarean section was carried out under ambient light. Once, when it happened in the middle of the night, when the power was cut off, it was carried out under the doctor's light.
She told these stories to her husband, Hal Alonson, who has a Ph. D. in environmental sociology and has been focusing on solar energy for many years.
He designed and built what is now called a solar suitcase: solar energy equipment, which is easy to transport, install and use in areas where electricity is unreliable.
This suitcase-sized kit includes everything from solar panels to medical lighting to fetal monitors.
With the spread of news about solar suitcases, Dr. Stachel and Dr.
Alonson also founded the non-profit Wecaresolar Company, which received funding from foundations, companies and individuals.
Last year, it won the United Nations Climate Solutions Award for Change Power.
In collaboration with non-profit organizations and United Nations agencies, about 3,500 facilities in 27 developing countries worldwide received solar suitcases.
Doctors say it costs $3,000 to support a clinic with a solar suitcase for five years.
Stachel says it includes all the equipment, transportation and training.
The organization is also committed to training local residents to install and maintain solar energy.
She said that the impact on health is obvious, but the impact on the environment is also obvious.
Diesel generators and kerosene lamps are polluting and producing carbon dioxide.
But perhaps more importantly, the development of solar energy will reduce dependence on fossil fuels. -
What some major hospitals in the United States are trying to do.
"We can skip this step and go straight to clean green electricity," she said.
Supermarkets around the world are major users of hydrofluorocarbon refrigerants, which contribute to ozone depletion and global warming. -
In Chile, they are the biggest users.
As a result, a supermarket chain called Jumbo has become the first supermarket in China to adopt new refrigeration technologies that are more environmentally friendly than traditional methods.
The new refrigeration technology uses transcritical carbon dioxide, a refrigerant that has much less impact on the ozone layer and global warming.
Hydrofluorocarbon refrigerants have replaced ozone. -
HCFCs are consumed, but because they have such a serious impact on global warming, efforts are being made around the world to find alternatives.
Hydrofluorocarbons are 1000 times calorific-
Capability of carbon dioxide capture.
According to the Kigali Amendment to the Montreal Protocol, countries must meet specific goals and timetables to replace HFC refrigerants with more environmentally friendly alternatives.
Claudia Paratori Cort_s, Coordinator of the Ozone Department of the Climate Change Office of the Ministry of Environment of Chile, said Jumbo had installed the system in three supermarkets in Chile so far and would transform four other stores in the near future. Ms.
Cort_s said the comparison of two refrigeration modes-
Transcritical Carbon Dioxide and a Hydrofluorocarbon Compound-
It is found that the energy efficiency of transcritical carbon dioxide system has increased by 20% to 40%, saving about $20,000 per year.
In addition, she says, waste heat from transcritical carbon dioxide systems can be used to heat water, thereby saving energy.