Dead Sea of Jordan（Reuters)-
After midnight, on Jordan's busiest highway, only the glaring headlights of vehicles traveling between the capital Amman and the Dead Sea penetrated the darkness.
From Amman to the bottom of the valley below sea level, there were street lights on both sides of the road, but none of them turned on.
The government can no longer afford the bill. The resource-
Poor countries import 97% of their energy, and the cost of purchasing it has soared to more than $5 billion a year in the past two years. (3.
3 billion pounds)-
Equivalent to 15% of GDP-
After cheap Egyptian gas supplies were interrupted by damage to Jordan's pipeline.
Jordan, now dependent on expensive diesel and fuel oil, is considering broader electricity rationing and is preparing to raise electricity prices in June, a politically worrying move that saw street protests last year over cuts in fuel subsidies, a condition for the International Monetary Fund's $2 billion loan.
"Energy is the Achilles heel of Jordan's economy, and it is Jordan's great weakness. . .
Nemat Shafik, vice-chairman of the International Monetary Fund, said during a visit to Jordan last month: "This is the biggest consumption of the economy. "
This is not only a cost, but also the ability of the government to manage.
Jordan's failure to modernize for decades-
Old refineries handle 140,000 barrels of crude oil imports per day, but their refining capacity is limited. -
Experts say high-quality diesel fuel exacerbates the crisis.
At the same time, experts say that foreign investment in independent power plants accounts for more than 60% of the country's 3,300 MW installed capacity, barely keeping up with the 7% annual increase in electricity consumption.
Therefore, in the short term, the government is forced to solve the other side of the supply-demand relationship and find ways to reduce consumption.
Some steps are relatively painless;
Last month, the authorities asked companies to bid for 600,000 sets of energy. -
They plan to save light bulbs in public buildings and promote one throughout the country.
Five million of these bulbs were given to families.
"If you don't have enough generations, you have to manage your needs.
A quick solution is energy efficiency in transportation and electricity, where load consumption is high, "said Harid Irani, an energy consultant and former energy minister, estimating that efficiency steps could save $1 billion.
Other measures are painful.
The government is considering a new electricity rationing plan this summer to deal with the expected influx of more than 460,000 Syrian refugees fleeing the civil war.
The government also plans to raise electricity prices this summer, a move that will help curb demand growth and mitigate losses in technology-bankrupt countries. -
State-owned Electric Power Company, State Electric Power Production Company.
After being forced to pay independent generators for the energy generated by expensive diesel and heavy fuels, NEPCO losses were reduced and $2 billion in debt accumulated, a key performance standard for 36 Jordanian countries. -
Monthly standby loan agreement with IMF.
Egyptian gas flow once accounted for 80% of Jordan's total electricity, and the interruption of gas flow increased the cost of generating a kilowatt by 600%.
The flow of natural gas was first destroyed by armed elements or bandits in Egypt, and then hit by bottlenecks in the Egyptian gas industry.
But this interruption has created momentum for Jordan to invest in renewable energy projects, which, although they will not end the crisis in the short term, seem increasingly viable.
The first to emerge was Shams Maan, an equity partner of Kawar Energy in Jordan. S.
First Solar and Italian Solar Investment Corp. built a 100-megawatt solar power plant in the southern city of Man at a cost of $300 million.
Hanna zaghloul, chief executive of the project, said the government would now pay 16. 9 U. S.
Solar energy costs about cents per kilowatt-hour, heavy fuel costs about 24 cents and diesel costs about 28 cents.
"That's why renewable energy is now feasible for the government," Zaglor said.
A year ago, Parliament passed a renewable energy law that sets the price structure for grid connections.
The government is seeking a letter of intent by April 11 to build a $120 million, 75 megawatt solar power plant in Kuvira, southern Jordan.
At least a dozen international companies have submitted proposals for this and other solar projects.
In recent months, rich Gulf countries have invested $5 billion to support Jordan's development in the face of regional instability, and Jordan's ability to continue implementing these projects has been enhanced.
The fund may also help fund the construction of a $100 million liquefied natural gas terminal, which is expected to be completed in the second half of 2014 and will receive gas from Qatar.
At the same time, Jordan plans to build a strategic reserve of 100,000 tons of oil to increase its extremely low inventory, which currently has only three weeks of supply.
1000 km（625 mile)
At least one crude oil pipeline is planned to be exported.
Iraqi crude oil is 5 million barrels per day transported to other countries through Jordan and its port of Akaba.
Technical research has been carried out and tender documents are expected to be received shortly.
Industry experts say Jordan hopes to find enough oil shale and gas reserves in the long run to reduce its dependence on energy imports.
Oil shale development has begun with Estonia's Enefit project, which plans to finance, build and operate 430 MW power plants using oil shale fuel by 2016.
Royal Dutch Shell has invested $100 million in oil shale exploration in eastern and Northern Jordan.
Jordan's oil shale project focuses on obtaining liquid hydrocarbons from fine hydrocarbons. -
Granular sedimentary rocks, unlike the shale oil industry in the United States, are not. -
Porous rocks through hydraulic fracturing are bringing about revolutionary changes in the United States. S. energy outlook.
Meanwhile, BP has invested $260 million in the Risha gas field near the Jordanian-Iraqi border.
The company has dug one well this year and plans to dig two more.
Jordanian officials say seismic studies suggest that the gas field could commercialize to produce 300 million to 1 billion cubic feet of natural gas a day by 2020, making the country an exporter of natural gas.
Even Jordan's controversial efforts to build a 1,000 megawatt nuclear power plant have made some progress, although financing challenges mean that the completion of the project is uncertain.
In the coming weeks, the French government is expected to choose between two priority bidders to supply the reactor. -
The Japanese consortium includes Ahmet and Mitsubishi Heavy Industries, as well as Rosatom of Russia.
For now, however, Jordan will have no choice but to address energy bottlenecks, which will increase its economic burden and increase its political risks.
"On the issue of energy, we are absolutely facing a grim situation.
In the next three or four years, this will remain a worrying issue until some projects, such as the start of oil shale, "said Alabatayeh, leader of energy autonomy drive. -
Adequacy as Minister of Energy of the previous Government.