A perovskite solar cell with nano-tungsten particles embedded in a carbon top electrode is introduced in this paper.
As an inorganic hole-
Transport materials (HTM)
The extraction of the perovskite/carbon interface is revealed through efficiency, electrical impedance and external quantum efficiency measurements.
Therefore, the energy conversion efficiency is increased by 40% compared with the reference device with energy conversion efficiency of 10.
77% under standard conditions.
TFSI can modify the electronic-
Transport materials (ETM)
Class compounds, which may inhibit the recombination in the tm/perovskite interface.
Li-VOC of modified devices
TFSI increased from 887. 9 to 934. 2u2009mV.
This work highlights the implications of the effective performance of carbon
By introducing the modification of HTM and interface, PSCs based on mesoscopic were established.
The world is now in a critical position to find new strategies for cheap and clean energy alternatives.
Solar energy conversion is one of the solutions to meet the world's energy needs.
Solar cells of the crystalline type (PSCs)
Perovskite based on lead halogen (e. g. , CHNHPbI)
Due to low cost and high efficiency, the photovoltaic industry has recently attracted attention.
Power conversion efficiency (PCEs)
These devices from ~ 4 increase. 0% to 23. 3%.
In most cases, the PSCs with the best performance are based on the evaporation of expensive metal back electrodes such as Ag and Au because they have excellent conductivity and reflectivity.
It takes energy to use such expensive metal electrodes
Evaporation technology and disruption under environmental conditions.
In addition, Ag exhibits a strong reaction activity with halogen roots, and Au may be mixed into the perovskite layer, resulting in the degradation of the device, which will further inhibit their long time
Long-term use and large-scale commercial use.
Carbon, as an alternative rich source, makes clear the cheap and convenient way to replace costs
Effective metal back electrode in PSC.
Carbon and its composites have the chemical properties of oxidation resistance/reaction and can be printed in bulk or in continuous rollingto-Roller processing.
Han and his colleagues explored the carbon electrode in the hole.
Transport materials-free (HTM-free)
PSCs with TiO/ZrO/C configuration were obtained 6.
Power Conversion of 64% (PCE).
A series of works with this carbon
Various researchers have reported electrode-based research.
Nevertheless, most studies focus on the crystals and HTM of perovskite-
Free PSCs with carbon electrode up to 15%.
In addition, efforts to improve the performance of HTMfree carbon-
PSCs-based has been extended to a wider range such as electronics-
Transport materials (ETM)
Its interface, the composition of the carbon electrode itself, and even p-
Type material in HTMfree PSCs.
Due to the cost of HTM and other spiralOMeTAD [2,2′,7,7′-tetrakis(N,N-di-p-methoxyphenyl-amine)9,9′-spiro-bifluorene]polymer-based poly(triarylamine)(PTAA)
Very high for large enterprises
Scale applications, organic HTMs or their ingredients are clearly the main factors for the long term
Term operation and thermal instability of PSCs used with them, HTM-
Free PSCs have become an attractive option.
The free "approach is not the only way to solve these costs and instability problems, and carbon emissions
PSCs based on mesoscopic should not be limited to "HTM-free”.
Inexpensive inorganic hole extraction layers, such as CuSCN, NiO, can also be used for carbon-
Organic HTM for these questions.
Recently, NiO nanoparticles as inorganic HTM have been introduced in carbon
The PSCs-based efficiency was the highest at 17%.
Although the introduction of HTM (NiO)in carbon-
A few years ago, the PSC-based device structure was proposed, with few alternatives involved in the photovoltaic field.
In this study, we introduced
Extraction materials tungsten oxide (WO)
Used in the preparation of carbon paste for reverse electrode to improve carbon-based PSCs.
In addition, we used lithium bis (
Trifluoride and sulfur-based)imide (Li-TFSI)
The surface of the layer, which may greatly affect the opening-
Circuit Voltage (Voc)
Cells such as Li-
TFSI can change the interface between mt and perovskite, which may reduce the number of deep traps that act as the center of the composite and suppress the compounding of the mt/perovskite interface, thus increasing the open circuit voltage.
Therefore, with the introduction of additive WO nanoparticles and Li-
TFSI, average PCE of carbon
The base PSCs increased from 7% to 10%, of which V increased from 886 to 931 with a maximum PCE of 10. Achieve 8%.
This shows that there is great potential to further cultivate the performance of carbon